Resume of special issue

Selectivity of Detection Devices Intended for Ethylalcohol Detection in Exhaled Human Breath
doc. Ing. Jaroslav Suchánek, CSc.

The article deals with information on correct response of the detection devices to the presence of ethylalcohol vapours in the exhaled human breath. This information is mentioned based on the literary sources, but mainly on the experiments. The false positive response of the detection devices which is reflected by the mistaken positive reaction on other vapours of the substances, except ethylalcohol, is being discussed. Different aromatic substances in food, in the means of dental hygiene and in the cosmetic products are evaluated in the article. The author analyses the current situation with the use of the typical detection device in the Czech Police.
Keywords: detection tube, Dräger 7410, electronic detectors, ethylalcohol, measurement accuracy, Widmark reaction.

Phenomenology of Victimisation
doc. PhDr. Ludmila Čírtková, CSc.

The article explains different patterns of victimization. Linear victimization expresses the common sense suggestions about victims and their reactions to crime. Nonlinear patterns of victimization evoke doubts about the credibility of victim’s statements. The author explains the perception and declaration processes in nonlinear patterns of victimization especially by victims of rape. The author describes empirical study project of nonlinear victimization. Empirical research outputs can be used in victimological expertizes for court or for correct handling of victims.
Keywords: victimization, victim, crime, empirici research.

Punishment Acceptance and the Values of the Persons Serving a Prison Sentence
PhDr. Marcela Moulisová, Ph.D.

There was conducted a research among prisoners (311 men and 70 women) the aim of which was to find out how the prisoners accept their punishment. The acceptance was based on the feeling of guilt and on the perception of punishment adequacy. It turned out that those who accepted the punishment outright (an individual feels guilty and considers the punishment as adequate) were mainly young men (under 30 years), who more emphasized the value of money and who used less frequently the neutralization techniques of condemnation of the condemners. Those who accepted the punishment with some reservation (an individual feels guilt but does not consider the punishment as adequate), put more emphasis on the values of freedom and children and later often used the technique of damage denial. Those who did not accept the punishment (an individual who does not feel guilt and does not consider the punishment as adequate) were mostly older men (40 years and above) put more emphasis on the value of partnership and more often used the neutralization technique of condemnation of the condemners, but less often the technique of denial of damage and responsibility. The research proved that the value ranking is reflected in the approach to punishment acceptance.
Keywords: research, prisoners, feeling of guilt, punishment perception of adequacy, values, category of punishment acceptance.

Research of Offenders Convicted of Negligence
doc. JUDr. Ivana Zoubková, CSc.

The article presents the results of the secondary analyses of findings about the motives, attitudes and value range of the offenders convicted of negligence during serving the sentence in prison. The new Criminal Code tightened the regulation in case of maintenance failure, which has resulted in the fact that more convicts serving the sentence in prison do not identify themselves with the punishment. Alternatives are the changes de lege ferenda.
Keywords: situational crime prevention, maintenance failure, negligence, criminal relapse, penological relapse, institute of maintenance back up.

Traditional Methods of Explosive Trace Particles Detection at Security Screening
plk. doc. RNDr. Jaroslav Tureček, Ph.D.

The contribution analyses in detail detection of explosives based on classical physical principles which performs selection of molecules of analysed gas and vapours mixture according to the velocity and the tracks of these molecules. A lot of variants and combinations of electron capture detection, gas chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry and other methods are included. Emphasis is placed on the advantages and disadvantages of the various principles and their use in security practice.
Keywords: explosives detection, trace particles.

Less Lethal Ammunition and Cartridges
pplk. Mgr. Tomáš Novotný

The article describes the importance of less lethal munitions and ammunition, according to the survey, the method and how to use them. The article stated the terminology, types of ammunitions and munition, specific examples of used munition.
Keywords: ammunition, munition, caliber, less lethal, OC, SC, XREP.

3D Digitalization of a Crime Scene as a New Documentation Metod of Investigation
Mgr. Zdeněk Marek

This article is the outcome of author conducted between 2008 – 2013 and materials contained in this article were presented to the Days of sciences organized by the Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague on September 25, 2013. The main theme of the article are a new methods of documentation of the crime scene as special as 3D digitizing and scanning the crime scene. This article is intended for the general public and police practices for inform about the possibilities of this methods, its use and benefits. Parts of this research were published.
Keywords: 3D, crime scene, digitalization, documentation, forensic, laser, spatial, scanning.

Juvenile Delinquency Risk Factors – Analysis of Their Frequency
rada pplk. PhDr. JUDr. Jana Firstová, Ph.D.

The article presents partial results of research task No. 3/4 focused on an analysis of juvenile delinquency risk factors on the basis of files maintained and kept by the authorized authorities dealing with juvenile crime. The analysis of factors responsible for criminality of juvenile individuals was carried out. Some characterization of some of those factors such as a family background structure, parental neglect, placing a child or children in reformatory homes and their staying there, activities in their leisure time etc. was given in the article. Finally, the authors point out the necessity of adequate response of the authorized institutions and authorities as to their relevant interventions in connections with changes emerging within the juvenile crime etiology.
Keywords: child, delinquency, criminogenic factors, juveniles, family, socializing, upbringing, reformatory activities.

Integrity Tests – an Instrument of Prevention of Offences?
pplk. JUDr. Josef Hrudka, Ph.D.

The article deals with the description of the research task of the Police academy of Czech republic in Prague, which focuses on examination of preventative effects of so called integrity tests in Czech republic. Within this framework it then presents provisional findings resulting from the empirical research steps carried out so far.
Keywords: Integrity test, General inspectorate of security forces, Corruption, preventative effect.

(Different) Roles of Intelligence Services and the Police and Their Attitudes Towards Investigating and Detecting Specific Spheres of Crime
JUDr. Ladislav Pokorný, Ph.D.

The author deals with the problems of different roles of intelligence services and the police and especially their attitudes towards investigating and detecting specific spheres of crime. Their different roles proceed from some institutional teleology of these state authorities. The role of intelligence services dealing with real intelligence and providing some information service to particular state bodies is not necessarily connected with penal law consequences whereas the role of police is to find and collect information and evidence for consequent criminal proceedings. The author focuses in great detail on the issue of distinguishing intelligence services from the police as well as the relationship between the intelligence and criminal intelligence. He also points out a different attitude towards these kinds of police spheres both in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. In case of the Czech Republic he refers to the judgment of the Constitutional Court ÚS 3038/07 and to the Act No. 366/2003 Coll. in case of the Slovak Republic.
Keywords: intelligence services, public forces, police, intelligence, criminal intelligence, disjunctive imperative, institutional teleology.

Methodology of Criminal Extremism Detection and Investigation
prof. JUDr. Mgr. Jana Viktoryová, PhD., JUDr. Jaroslav Blatnický, PhD.

Authors focus on criminal extremism detection and investigation from the viewpoint of an analysis of the body of a particular crime. They pay their special attention to detection, evidence proceedings and investigation. In the part of their article dealing with crime detection they highlight a significance of detecting the ways of extremism crime commission and concealment of such crimes as a necessary precondition of a good interpretation of traces and also consequent exercising means of evidence. The authors especially focus on verbal ways of extremism crime commission as well as violent and graphic forms of such crimes commission. The definition of the course of extremism investigation proceedings appears to be the principal part of the study. This part is particularly aimed at the initiation, particularities of measures, exigent and unrepeatable acts, means of evidence such as victim interrogation, suspect, witness, personal search, scene crime examination etc. Furthermore there is an analysis of subject-matter and extent of evidence proceedings and investigation of extremist crimes, creation and examination of investigation versions, investigation planning and particularities of acts and measures in a consequent step of extremism investigation. The end of the study deals with collaboration and cooperation as a major part of extremism crime investigation.
Keywords: extremism detection, extremism investigation initiation, extent of evidence proceedings in extremism investigation, cooperation in extremism investigation, acts and measures in extremism investigation, extremism investigation, extremist crimes, extremism investigation versions.

Propaganda Methods of Extremist Scene Int the Czech Republic and the Current Trends
pplk. Mgr. Barbora Vegrichtová, MBA

The purpose of the article is a description of the current activities of extremist scene in the Czech republic, focusing on the actual topics and the modern propaganda methods. Extremist groups use these methods in order to present their goals and predominantly to affect and influence the wide public. The article also describes the new selected trends and actual propaganda instruments, e.g. using of internet and social network, new strategies and styles, more intesive participating of women in the extremist movements.
Keywords: Extremism, internet, manipulation, trends, propaganda, social networks.

The Use of Non-Lethal Weapons in Policing
pplk. Ing. Aleš Blahut, kpt. Mgr. Miroslav Rouč

Non-lethal weapons are one of the possibilities of restraining an adversary without causing any health harm resulting in death. It is a topical issue in the context of a rising number of emergencies demanding a police intervention, when the offender´s injury or death, not speaking of non-involved persons, is inevitable or unacceptable. Summary of selected non-lethal weapons.
Keywords: firearms, non-lethal weapons, tactics, technice and technology, methodology, police interventions, emergencies

Gross Negligence and Traffic Criminal Offences on Roads
JUDr. Miroslav Polcar, Ph.D.

In the article the author deals with the analysis of subjective site of the body of a crime related to road accidents, further accident- related effects connected with negligence fault. In the context of the new Criminal Code there is, for the case of negligent fault in Section 16 Clause 2, introduced a new term – gross negligence. In the article the term gross negligence (gross violation of law) is further specified and the author highlights the fact that there is an absence of this element in the context of a criminal offence of endangering the safety of the public with negligence as provided in Section 273 of the Criminal Code.
Keywords: road traffic, traffic accident, Criminal Code, traffic criminal offences, negligent fault, gross negligence, criminal offence of endangering the safety of the public with negligence.

Possibilities of Modelling Tools Application in Security and Safety Systems of the Czech Republic
JUDr. Vladimír Souček, Mgr. Oldřich Krulík, Ph.D., prof. Ing. Bedřich Šesták, DrSc.

This paper describes the current outputs of the research project of the Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague: Creating Simulation Methods for Security Management. Attention is given to methodology and procedure for developing of the respektive scenarios, as well as the possibility of using games (or exercises) in crisis simulation. Practical examples of the use of tools for risk assessment and management are also not left behind. The conclusion is devoted to modeling scenarios disasters in the curriculum of the Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague.
Keywords: Crisis scenarios modeling, crisis management, crisis management exercises, education.

Communication with the Public in Emergency Situations Focusing on Socigenic Emergency Incidents: Regional Information Sources on Recommended Approach to Deal with Situations of Profound Disruption of Public Order and Security
Mgr. Oldřich Krulík, Ph.D.

The article tries to briefly summarise regional and local approaches to the issues of informing the public about adequate acting in the state of profound disruption of public order and security (particularly with regards to issues of terrorism and demonstrations). There are also mentioned conclusions of individual regional authorities, as well as materials of regional directorates of Fire Rescue Service and several municipalities, administrative districts of municipalities with extended competence respectively.
Keywords: sociogenic emergency situations, terrorism, demonstration, higher regional self-governing bodies.

Oil Security and Education From the Perspective of Regional Offices
Mgr. Lukáš Harazin, Mgr. Oldřich Luža

The article describes the role of the oil security in the security system of the Czech Republic in terms of education activities. The authors introduced the results of the project “Increase the Efficiency of the Education System in Crisis Management” with a focus on oil security and regional offices. One of the key aspect of the respective agenda is undoubtedly the education of involved experts as well as the general public about the specific aspects of this issue. Although in the Czech Republic there are specific documents (in particular the “Training Module F: Oil Security”), the agenda is developing so dramatically that a few years after the release of the respektive document, there is great potential for updating and supplementation.
Keywords: Oil, oil security, Education.

The Mutual Relation Between the Occurrence of Threats and Their Perception in Terms of Negative Social Phenomena
Dr. Bc. Ján Šugár, CSc., Mgr. Lenka Jakubcová

This paper demonstrates the partial results of research achieved under the project “Identification and characterization of selected sociogenic emergencies”. Using specific data on the incidence of negative social phenomena of great intensity in the individual regions and their perceptions as threats to the security of the citizens, it is has been shown that negative social phenomena pose the greatest threat. In addition, based on the analysis of statistical and substantive importance of the interrelationship between the occurrence of negative social phenomena and their perception of the threat, the paper shows that the frequent occurrence of a particular phenomenon can lead to its more significant awareness recognized as a threat (eg, national and ethnic conflicts, mass clashes among extremists as well as spectator and sports violence). On the other hand, the above analysis also revealed that some current negative social phenomena, or more their frequent occurrence, results in their perception as the major threats (eg. such as illegal migration).
Keywords: social phenomenon, negative social phenomenon, threat, statistical significance.

On Selected Issues of Peace Operations in the Post-Modern Era
JUDr. Pavel Liška

The article points to the lack of sufficiently effective concept of the international community in addressing issues of international peace and security, with specific attention to the peacekeeping operations of the international community. These measures go through a process of fundamental transformation. The police in their implementation still hold an important position, which affects the rate of Czech participation in these activities. The author identifies problems, which is in the subject area oriented research conducted at the department of public disciplines Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague and its partial results.
Keywords: The international community, the United Nations, the European Union, the operation of the international community in favor of peace, UN peace operation, maintenance or establishment of peace, participation in peace operations, the risks of peace operations.

Political Extremism and Semantic Differential
Dr. Zdeněk Kovařík, CSc., Jozef B. Ftorek, M. A.

The original scientific paper presents coherent information on the research dealing with the attitudes of a sample of secondary school and university students towards political extremism. For the research purposes there was applied a standardised technique of semantic differential in Osgood’s interpretation. In the paper there are presented gradual phases of application of exploratory and confirmatory analysis to confirm the structure of student’s attitudes towards the concept of political extremism, all in the perspective of Osgood’s three factor concept and the two factor concept of Miroslav Chráský. While using correspondence maps there is depicted the area of compared individual groups of respondents for each concept – political extremism in two-dimensional space. To determine the interval of reliability of average arithmetic differential while using the t-test, there is used the bootstrap technique respecting the results of previous homogeneity range analysis. The concept of subject significance is used to verity the research premise for analysis of mean value attitudes to the concept of political extremism among secondary and university students of the selected sample.
Keywords: research premise, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correspondence analysis, correspondence map, effect size of mean value differential, coefficient of effect size – Cohen “d” and Cohen “g”, Hedges “g”, Glass “delta”, CLES statistics

Anti-Extremism Consensus in the Theory and Practice of Democratic State
doc. Ing. Dr. Štefan Danics, Ph.D.

The author in the contribution opens debate on the protection of democracy against its political enemies. The concept of the protection of democracy is yet theoretically, methodologically, and the most politically controversial. Possible variants of the protection of liberal democracy are described. Advantages and pitfalls of the German concept of ‘combative democracy’ are emphasized. The concept presumes constitutional, administrative, criminal-law, and discursive protection. Anti-extremism consensus works only in theory because, in practice, questions how to proceed against political extremists lead to dispute.
Keywords: Democracy, Extremism, Right-wing Extremism, Left-wing Extremism, Islamic Fundamentalism, Populism, Extremism in the Political Centre, Combative Democracy, Anti-extremism Consensus.

Far Right Extremist/Populist Political Parties in the Selected Europe Union´s States
PhDr. Ladislava Tejchmanová, Ph.D., doc. Ing. Dr. Štefan Danics, Ph.D.

With the 2014 European Parliament elections there is growing concern about far right/populist or Eurosceptic political parties possible gains. The 2009 European Parliament elections experienced success of these political parties that has been followed in several EU states by their strengthened positions in the general elections 2010 – 2013. The issue of far right and populist parties is to be followed continuously. Presented short study is a part of the more extensive project the aim of which is to give overview of current and primarily active political parties that experts and academics find as far right, populist or extremist ones. Authors of this article follow far right political subjects in Great Britain, Italy, Greece and Spain. Portugal is mentioned in marginal.
Keywords: far right, extremist, populist political parties, Great Britain, Italy, Greece, Spain, Portugal.

The Interpreted Results of the Research Carried Out For the Evaluation of Police Officers
PhDr. Petr Jedinák, Ph.D., Ing. Marek Čandík, PhD., Dr. Zdeněk Kovařík, CSc.

In their paper, the authors present the data obtained for the evaluation of policemen of the Police of the Czech Republic. The aim of the research conducted in 2009-2013 was to explore how the policemen perceive themselves the evaluation process aimed at their work performance. The research carried out is a part of the scientific research task No. 4/3 of the Integrated Research Project No. 4 implemented at the Police Academy of the Czech Republic in the years 2010-2015. The research results have then been interpreted using the methods of descriptive statistics and statistical processing of the data.
Keywords: performance evaluation, working performance, research task, evaluator – a policeman occupying a managerial position, evaluated policeman – a common policeman.

The Selected Aspects of Cyber Crime Trends
doc. RNDr. Josef Požár, CSc., Mgr. Oldřich Krulík, Ph.D.

The paper deals with possible cyber crime trends and refers to the application of the Convention on computer crime in the Czech Republic with the emphasis on the international cooperation in the cyber crime investigation.
Keywords: cyber crime, the Convention on computer crime in the Czech Republic, cyber crime investigation.

Responsibility for Some Mixed Administrative Offences Under the Act on Radio and Television Broadcasting
doc. JUDr. Eva Horzinková, Ph.D.

The article deals with the issue of the administrative punishment in the area of the mixed administrative offences modified by the Act on Radio and Television Broadcasting. The author defines the individual merits of administrative offences, specifies their legal characters and describes their adjustment. The article emphasizes the need to take into account not only criteria when sanctioning these offences, but the fundamental principles of the fair trial are also important during the process of discussion.
Keywords: public administration, commingled offense, fault, legal responsibility, objective responsibility, codification, qualified action, fair proces.

General Considerations of the Administrative Punishment in Relation to Offences
doc. JUDr. Eva Horzinková, Ph.D.

The study deals with the problems of the administrative punishment in general and eventually focuses on the Infraction law. The administrative punishment as one of the important areas of Public Administration is a subject of constant change. Special literature and also the rich jurisprudence in this area pay attention to this issue. The author in her study puts attention to the general principles and codes and eventually examines the possibility of the new legislation which is contained in the factual purpose of the Infraction Act. She tries to specify the differences between the kinds of penalties under the current legislation and the expected new legislation. The subject of the research and comparison are also the criteria of penalty imposing, changed based on the factual purpose of the Infraction Act. Regarding the fact that the conception of the administrative punishment has been postponed several times, it will depend on further progress of legislative work in order to adopt the new legislation of the Infraction Act.
Keywords: Administrative punishment, penalty, public administration, Infraction Law, administrative responsibility, warning, activity prohibition, fine, residence prohibition, forfeiture of an item, value of an item.

The Concept of Administrative Offences
JUDr. Zdeněk Fiala, Ph.D.

The aim of this article is to present the main points of prepared reform of administrative offences and outline the problematic issues related with the proposed legislation.
Keywords: reform, administrative offences, delict, crimes.

Internet Assistance of Education at the Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague
JUDr. Štěpán Kalamár, Ph.D., Ing. Bc. Marek Čandík, PhD.

This conbtribution presents the intentions of preparing of study support for the purpose of study at the Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague in the field of information security. For these purposes was at the Police Academy the institutional project No. 4/8 designed.
Keywords: study support, education, internet.

Child Cybercrime
Mgr. Lukáš Habich, JUDr. Štěpán Kalamár, Ph.D.

The article deals with the partial scientific research task of the PA CR No. 4/8 “Electronic support of education in the sphere of law and security management and the scientific attitude to these subjects”. This task is aimed at an analysis of possible writing and administering relevant electronic course books. Problems of child cyber crime is also included in this research task.
Keywords: cyber bullying, cyber crime, information security.