Resume of special issue

Biomechanical Aspect of Clash Fight
prof. PhDr. Jiří STRAUS, DrSc.

The author of the article has been engaged in biomechanical research in the field of extreme dynamic loading of the organism for many years. In the presented paper he orientates on the aspects of clash fight. The research uses mathematical modelling. Mathematical modelling combined with geometrical and physical modelling is in forensic biomechanics the only way so far how to gain relevant information about the studied action. There was a pilot research of deviation of the body by outer force and carried out for gaining empirical data and subsequently the analysis of biomechanical content of video recordings of imitation of clash fight. From the measurement carried out important data were gained for further modelling.
Keywords: biomechanics, modelling, empiric research.

Biomechanical aspects of Direct hit and Statistical Testing of Relevance of Created Performance Groups
prof. PhDr. Jiří STRAUS, DrSc., Dr. Zdeněk KOVAŘÍK, CSc.

Power of stroke is significant information for assessment head injury and body injury. There has been studied translational and rotational acceleration of the power of stroke. There are presented results of experiments in the article. Measurement was made in the average man´s population specimen. Presented results showed that has not been certified marked dependence between quantum of the dynamic component of the power of stroke and body weight. There also has not been certified relevant dependence between quantum of the dynamic component of the power of stroke and stature. Maximum value of the power of direct stroke is depending on training grade of experimental person. Results of measurement has been in interval from 765 N (untrained) to 2917 N (highly coached).
Keywords: force, power, biomechanice, stroke, acceleration, head injury.

Experimental Findings how to Detect Low Alcohol Readings in Exhaled Air
doc. Ing. Jaroslav SUCHÁNEK, CSc.

The article describes first experimental results of measuring alcohol in exhaled air after the application of some cosmetic preparations and after eating some sweets containing a declared content of alcohol. In a number of cases immediately after some cosmetic preparations had been applied or certain sweets had been eaten high alcohol test readings were detected in the exhaled air. These readings, however, fall rapidly, and they correspond to the mouth alcohol level, not to the alveolar air. Experiments were carried out as part of a scientific and research task.
Keywords: alcohol, alcohol detection, criminalistics, measuring, toxicology, exhaled air.

New Trends in Victimology
doc. PhDr. Ludmila ČÍRTKOVÁ, CSc.

The article refers about current topics of victimology. New empirical founding’s lead to a greater differentiation in crisis intervention and care about victims. The empowerment of victims is the main principle. Modern systems of helping victims emphasise an complex services evolving legal, psychological and practical help. The combination and cooperation of these services represents the perspective trend in taking care about victims of serious crime.
Keywords: victimology, victim, trends, crisis intervention.

Toward Czech Conceptualization of Anti-Gypsyism
Mgr. Tomáš KAMÍN

The author gives questions concerning Czech conceptualization of anti-gypsyism and related problems. He concludes that there is difference between western Europe and Czech conception of anti-gypsyism, mainly it is true for Czech research agency STEM and some Czech sociologists. That is they reject Czech anti-gypsyism as a form of racism. According to the author, it is still important to focus on Czech conceptualization of racism and related anti-gypsyism. Last but not least, author declines usage of the word anti-gypsyism in science, even though he understands motives of those, who try to introduce it to wider public discourse.
Keywords: sociology, Gypsies, racism, anti-gypsyism, anti-semitism.

Information About Partial Research Task No. 1/6 “Decision Making of Offenders of Criminal Activity According to Parameters of SITUATIONAL PREVENTION”
PhDr. Marcela MOULISOVÁ, Ph.D., doc. JUDr. Ivana ZOUBKOVÁ, CSc.

The article informs about the partial research task solved by the department of criminology with the title “Decision-taking of Offenders of Criminal Activity according to Parameters of Situational Prevention” No.1/6. The task is a free continuation of the research carried out in the framework of the Research intention of the PA CR in the years 2004-2010, which tested the criminological theory of rational choice on a group of students. The present research has the character of repetition, but on another group of respondents – real offenders of criminal acts. The aim of this task is to get information not only for theoretical knowledge, but preponderantly for the practical use in the framework of situational prevention.
Keywords: decision making of offenders, motivation, neutralization techniques, situational prevention, probability of revelation.

Possibilities and Limites of Novelization the Law No. 84/1990 Sb. on the Right of Assembly Including Comments Regarding the Impacts of Individual Changes
Mgr. Lenka BURDOVÁ

The paper represents a primary version of one of assumed target results of a partial scientific and research task 2/3 of the project “Identification and Characterization of Selected Sociogenic Emergency Events” which corresponds to a practically utilizable or applicable part of research achievements of this project. Based on empirically identifiable needs of public authorities and executive organs, the author analyzed the current amendments of freedom of assembly in relation to the recently very topical and visible problems with respect to demonstrations and marches organized by hard right extremists. The paper presents a pilot version of the proposal of the amendment to the Law No. 84/1990 Sb. on the right of assembly including comments regarding the impacts of individual changes.
Keywords: analysis of needs of the public authorities, extremism, novelization, the person which assemble, attendee of the assemblage, autority, Law No. 84/1990 Sb. on the right of assembly.

The Identification and Characterization of Selected Sociogenic Emergency Events
Mgr. Lenka BURDOVÁ, Bc. Dr. Ján ŠUGÁR, CSc.

The paper brings some partial results achieved in the research project “Identification and Characterization of Selected Sociogenic Emergency Events”. Empirical data reflecting the frequency of negative social phenomena of a considerable intensity on the territory of individual regions have identified sociogenic emergency events which can often occur in the Czech Republic and which are perceived by public authorities including their executive organs as the most problematic. Their solution requires enormous financial resources. At the same time, conceptual solutions of problems relevant to the prevention of these phenomena and events which may result from such events are not satisfactory addressed in the long term. These phenomena and events are then qualitatively analyzed and systemized using a general algorithm the parameters of which systematically defined environment, development of spreading, probability of occurrence, scope of actions in causing primary and secondary impacts and consequences.
Keywords: extremism, football hooliganism, demonstration, sociogenic emergency event, strike, terrorism.

Current International Requirements Regarding the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material
doc. Ing. Jozef SABOL, DrSc., prof. Ing. Bedřich ŠESTÁK, DrSc.

The paper deals with some topical questions concerning the transport of radioactive substances with special emphasis on international aspects of this transport of such dangerous goods. Due to possible misuse of these materials for terroristic purposes, at present, there has been paid a lot of attention in the world and also in the Czech Republic to introduce effective regulatory mechanisms aimed at the prevention, detection and identification of illegally transported radioactive materials. The Czech Republic adopted a range of measures against illegal movement of radioactive sources which included the relevant legislature as well as the installation of appropriate detection equipment at border crossings and international airports. In this regard, the situation in the Czech Republic is fully in line with international requirements.
Keywords: Safety, transport, radioactive material, radiation protection.

How to Confront Radiological Terrorist Threats?
doc. Ing. Jozef SABOL, DrSc., prof. Ing. Bedřich ŠESTÁK, DrSc.

The paper deals with problems of potential terrorist threats based on the use of suitable radioactive material which could be dispersed in the place of attack and thus affect not only persons present at this location but it might also result in a negative impact on the surrounding area that would be radioactively contaminated. In principle, for the construction of a radiological weapon one can use any of a number of radionuclides which are commonly applied in industry and medicine. The paper gives an overview of such applications as well as some important properties of radionuclides involved. In addition, the possible impact of a radiological assault and possibilities of the mitigation of this malevolent act on the population n and the environment has been discussed. Attention is also paid to preventive measures where the strict security of radioactive sources including the debarment of unauthorized persons to those sources and precaution with respect to their illicit trafficking play an important role. It has been noted that compliance with these requirements requires the preparation and practical training of the personnel responsible for this field.
Keywords: terrorism, radioactive material, radiological weapon, personal exposure, prevention, population protection.

Cointegrational Analysis in Individual Equations of Quartely Time Series of Chosen Crime Rate and Unemployment Indicators in the Czech Republic
Dr. Zdeněk KOVAŘÍK, CSc.

The submitted article analyses the time series of four indicators of crime rate in the sphere of thefts and burglaries in relation to the time series “unemployment” in the Czech Republic. By the method of gradual steps (from 1 to 8) all necessary analytic operations are carried out, which exactly prove the found cointegrating relations.The shown analysis procedures of cointegration of non-stationary time series can serve as an instruction for those who are interested in a similar type of time series analysis.
Keywords: time series, stationarity and non-stationarity of time series, test of a unit root, static regressive analysis, residuum, Gaussian white noise, cointegration.

Verifying of Research Hypotheses by the Way of Substantive Significance
Dr. Zdeněk KOVAŘÍK, CSc.

In the analysis of relations between variables in research practice is dominated using of the concept of statistical significance. Statistical significance is often used even if the basic conditions are not met. In the present article, the attention is focused on the use of the second concept – the substantive significance (effect size). Analysis of the substantive significance is subjected to the research results of the “Cooperation the Police of the Czech Republic with the Public”. The research was based on the fact that cooperation with the public is a very important factor that directly affects the success of the majority of police activities. At the same time increasing the confidence of citizens in the police.

Particularities in Experience and Behaviour of Individuals and Social Groups in Emergency Situations
JUDr. Mgr. Joža SPURNÝ, Ph.D.

From the results of our research follows, that when judging the reliability of human performance (searching for the causes of failure of man in exposed situations) social and psychological factors play an important part, present in the situation (situational variables) and the experience of their influence by the participant of the situation. The content of the contribution are starting theses for the formulation of the research problem and the following choice of methodology for the realization of the research task 2/5 Particularities in Experience a Behaviour of Individuals and Social Groups in Emergency Situations.
Keywords: emergency situation, personal and situational variables, particularities of communication in emergency situations.

Krize západního libertanistického kapitalismu a možnosti právovědy a státo-vědy – jak ji exaktně vzít na vědomí
doc. JUDr. Vladimír ZOUBEK, CSc.

This article presents a particular outputs of the research project n. 2 “Security and crisis management”, which was part of the research plan of the Police Academy in Prague (2011-2015), “Analysis of security risks and their transfer to the theory of security system”.
Keywords: research, global security.

Chosen Topical Problems of Police Security Activity
Mgr. Jozef TÓTH, doc. PhDr. Kamil PAVLÍČEK, CSc., pplk. Mgr. Jindřich KOMÁREK

The articie examine some actual questions of transport-safety problems. This guestins are important today and are waiting for police solutions. These problems are not sufficiently illuminated yet and also are not sufficiently perceived in public. The selection of these problems is not chosen acidentally. The importance of these problems grows at present. The society expects effective solutions of these interconnected problems that impacts on traffic-safety. The main proportion of solutions has police practices that have to provide effective methods and means.
Keywords: drug, aggresive behavior, points prevention, driving offences.

Possibilities and Limits Concerning the Treatment of Delinquent Children in the Czech Republic.
pplk. PhDr. JUDr. Jana FIRSTOVÁ

The author of this paper refers to the possibilities and limitations of dealing with delinquent children in the Czech Republic. She deals with means of criminal and outside legal character in the framework of reaction to youth crime from the point of view of their efficient use in practice.
Keywords: juvenile delinquency, crime, Czech Republic, delinquency, children, youth crime.

System Analysis of Risk of Social Reintegration of Persons After Being Released From Prison Sentence (Protective Care, Protective Treatment) prt 3/4
pplk. PhDr. JUDr. Jana FIRSTOVÁ

This paper deals with the preparatory phase of the partial scientific research intention “System Analysis of Risks of Social Reintegration of Persons Released from Serving Prison Sentence (Protective Care, Protective Treatment) – contribution to the prevention of relapse, respectively to the safety of regions. It shows the necessity of detection of risk facts of social reintegration with chosen groups of offenders aiming at a more efficient realization of this reintegration mitigating the risk of relapse.
Keywords: risks, social reintegration, serving prison sentence, prison sentence, prevention, relapse, criminality.

The Use of Non-Letal Coercive Means for Police Intervention
JUDr. Martin KLOUBEK, Ph.D.

The article discusses the new opportunities arising from the Act No. 273/2008 Coll. Police. This possibility is in the service procedure to immobilize persons indicated or already certified psychiatric disorder which poses a serious danger to life and health of themselves or bystanders, use the special projectors that her body transported to pharmaceuticals to enable the reduction of aggressive behavior and may induce different state of deep sedation that person. This kind of service intervention against aggressive person whose control and cognitive abilities are tempore criminis absent or severely damaged is more humane than the standard need to use coercive means or firearms.
Keywords: non-letal coercive means, immobilization of persons, medicaments, police practice, police intervention.

Pharmacologic Influence of Human Behaviour. Can it be Used in Police Intervention?
doc. MUDr. Ladislav HESS, DrSc., JUDr. Martin KLOUBEK, Ph.D.

At present means which could be used to a fast tranquilizing of violent and non-cooperative persons who are in a state of mental disorder or flare-up of mental illness, or under the influence of alcohol or narcotic and psychotropic substances are subject of interest. At disposal there are physical ways of immobilization such as the use of taser or chemical ways, by, the use of pharmaceuticals. The paper gives an overview of pharmaceuticals enabling the reduction of aggressive behaviour. At the same time there are listed requirements which the pharmaceuticals have to meet.
Keywords: pharmacological modification of behaviour, benzodiazepines, alfa? agonists, dissociative anaesthetics, neuroleptics, the use of non-lethal weapons.

Non-Lethal Weapon Systems – Technical and Tactical Aspects
Ing. Bohumil PLANKA, CSc., JUDr. Libor KOVÁRNÍK, Ph.D.

The article contains the first results of the research project carried out at the Police Academy in Prague “The Use of Non-Lethal Weapons in Police Practice”. The aim of the project is a complex elaboration of problems of non-lethal disabling of the offender. The project contains technical, medicinal, tactical and legal aspects of this phenomenon.
Keywords: offenders, police, non-lethal weapons.

A Consideration How to Manage Quickly, Efficiently and in a Humane Way a Restless, Aggressive, Mentally ill Person, Who is Dangerous to Himself as Well as Its Surroundings.

A forensic psychiatrist considers in this article the research task No. 3/8: carried out at the Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague: The Use of Non-lethal Weapons in Police Practice.
Keywords: offender, police, non-lethal weapons.

Information About the Research Project “Proposal of an Optimal Plan, Model of Complex Service Preparation of the Police of the CR”.
pplk. Mgr. Robert FIRST

The article deals with the preparatory phase of the partial scientific research project “Proposal of an Optimal Plan, Model of Complex Service Preparation of the Police of the CR” – a contribution to the research of participation of police officers in service preparation, knowledge of the problem of intervention against persons under the influence of psychotropic substances and driving police cars. It shows the necessity of stressing the wider spectrum of topics necessary for the preparation and education of police officers of the CR.
Keywords: police, service preparation, offender, drugs, behaviour under the influence of psychotropic substances.

“Integrity Test” in the Current (Second) Proposal of the Law on the General Inspectorate of Security Forces
pplk. JUDr. Josef HRUDKA, JUDr. Benedikt VANGELI

The article deals with the new wording of the “integrity test” in the current (second) proposal of the law on the General inspectorate of security forces. The article compares the concrete wording in the Police of the Czech republic Act, in the first proposal of the law on the General inspectorate of security forces, which never made it to the program of the House of Representatives and the wording in the second, current proposal of the law on the General inspectorate of security forces. The article analyses in detail mainly the third wording that increases the efficiency of this legal measure, such as the exemption from liability for misdemeanors and administrative offences committed only in order to perform an integrity test, restriction of the duty to inform retroactively of the integrity test or the possibility to document the integrity test using a person different from the inspector.
Keywords: Integrity test, General inspectorate of security forces, misdemeanor exemption, tools of proactive crime-fighting, criminality of officers and employees of security forces.

The Test of Integrity – Explications, Application, Effectivity
pplk. JUDr. Josef HRUDKA, JUDr. Benedikt VANGELI

There is no comprehensive analysis concentrating on how does the “Integrity test”, used by the Inspectorate of the Police of Czech republic, work. With the adoption of this new law on the General inspectorate of security forces, it will be necessary to analyse the functioning of this legal measure in a different wording included in the draft of the law. The authors of this article present a research plan no. 3/6: “The test of integrity – explications, application, effectivity, that shoud analyse this still relatively new legal measure from all relevant points of view.
Keywords: integrity test, Inspectorate of the Police of Czech republic, General inspectorate of security forces, tools of proactive crime-fighting, criminality of police officers.

Maltreatment of a Person Living in Common Dwelling and the Procedure of the Czech Police
JUDr. Milan ŠUBRT, Ph.D.

This article defines domestic violence from the point of view of criminology, criminalistics, psychology and especially penal law. The author analyses the legal fact of the crime maltreatment of a person living in common dwelling according to § 199 of the Penal Code. It analyses the procedure of members of the Czech Police in case of domestic violence and the authorization of the police according to the law on the Police of the Czech Republic.
Keywords: domestic violence, criminology, criminalistics, legislativ.

Phishing and Skimming Card From the Perspective of the Czech Criminal Law
pplk. JUDr. Petr VOLEVECKÝ, Ph.D.

This paper deals with cyber crime, which point to the outflow of funds from the victim’s bank account in particular phishing and card skimming. There are the definition of these manifestations, their criminal assessment, process diagrams of offenders in their commission and last but not least, examples of cyber threats.
Keywords: cyber crime, phishing, card skimming.

Report on Progress of the Integrated Research Task 4/3 System of Management of Public Organizations
doc. Ing. Ludmila MLÁDKOVÁ, Ph.D., PhDr. Petr JEDINÁK, Ph.D.

The paper briefly discusses results of the research task System of Management of Public Organizations in 2011. Research task is the part of Research task Nb. 4 for 2011-1015.
Keywords: research task, system of management, publications.

Leadership Skills of Managers of the Police of the Czech Republic
doc. Ing. Ludmila MLÁDKOVÁ, Ph.D.

The research on knowledge workers started in autumn 2010 at the Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague and University of Economics. This article presents first results of answers of respondents-policemen to question concerning leadership skills of their managers. Its objective is to inform about the ongoing research. As the article brings results from only 37 respondents, policemen, presented data cannot be generalized. The result is continuous.
Keywords: management, leadership, leadership skills.

Systems for the Evaluation of Workers in State Organizations – Results From Completed Research
Ing. Bc. Marek ČANDÍK, Ph.D., PhDr. Petr JEDINÁK, Ph.D., Dr. Zdeněk KOVAŘÍK, CSc.

The authors of the paper focused their attention at the process of the performance evaluation of workers in state organizations. This problem was a part of the research project no. 4/3 which is solved under the integrated research task no. 4 planned for years 2010-2015 and realized at the Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague. Modern approaches to the performance evaluation of organizations try to project into this evaluation all processes and activities which take place in those organizations. The evaluation should be carried out in such a way as to keep in mind the improvement in the future aimed at the quality. The paper presents results of the research related to the above mentioned topics which were carried out in 2011. Respondents were students of the combined form of study at the Police Academy who participate in practical training in state organizations.
Keywords: performance evaluation of organizations, working performance, research.

Evaluation of Members of the Police of the Czech Republic – Importance of the Process of Evaluation and Its Methodology, Data Analysis of Research Outputs
Dr. Zdeněk KOVAŘÍK, CSc., PhDr. Petr JEDINÁK, Ph.D.

In the paper the authors tried to describe problems related to the evaluation of working performance of policemen of the Police of the Czech Republic. This evaluation falls within the conception of the working performance management and it has been applied in the police since 2002. Actual process of the evaluation is carried out in line with the established methods. The results obtained from the evaluation are related to the remuneration of a policeman and to his further career advancement in the organization. For the organizations it is important to have a feedback – how policemen themselves see the entire process. Three research hypotheses regarding the evaluation of policemen of the Czech Republic have been presented; they were elaborated based on questionnaire survey launched at the Police Academy of the Czech Republic during the period of 2009-2011.
Keywords: evalution of members of the Police of the CR, evalution metodology, guestionnaire resech, resech.

Management of Cyber Crime
doc. RNDr. Josef POŽÁR, CSc., Ing. Milan KNÝ, CSc.

Authors ask questions concerning further directions in the sphere of fight against cyber crime and deal with the topic of cyber security itself. It is necessary to pay attention particularly to the protection of critical infrastructures, big corporations, banks, state institutions etc.
Keywords: cyber security, Information Security Management System, ISMS, MLS Multilevel Security, threats of cyber security, biometric, incident.

Legal Aspects of Cyber Crime Threats
doc. RNDr. Josef POŽÁR, CSc., JUDr. Štěpán KALAMÁR, Ph.D.

This article was elaborated in the framework of the Project of the scientific research project No. 4/4 ” Information Security and Cyber Crime in Organization”, which is a part of the integrated research task for the years 2010-2015, carried out by the Faculty of Security Management of the Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague as its partial output. It deals in the first part with the terminology and continues with the analysis of the legal recourse of cyber crime. In conclusion the author considers the wider connections of this type of crime.
Keywords: cyber cryme, legal aspects, research, legislation.

Efektivnost veřejného sektoru
Ing. Milan KNÝ, CSc., Mgr. František HŘEBÍK, Ph.D.

Our comparative study of public and non-public sector analyses effectiveness and troubles of benchmarking as the way to higher efficiency of management within the state and local administration. The authors of contribution deduce some pieces of knowledge resulting from their own research. The mentioned recurrence of social and economic process recession within the national and international area appears to be a topical problem.
Keywords: public sector, public sector efficiency, methods of public sector efficiency researching.
Testing as the Evaluation Form of Foreign Language Competence
doc. PhDr. Věra POLÁČKOVÁ, CSc., doc. PhDr. Michaela PÍŠOVÁ, CSc.
The article is focused on the development of theory and practice of language testing, on the types of language tests – depending on the purpose of testing on the quality of the tests and last but not least on the ethical aspects of language testing. The article presents selected historical aspects of the language testing theories, analyses partial socio-linguistic and psychological approaches, and outlines communicative and post-communicative approaches to language testing. The authors draw on Europe-wide adopted documents, they mention the importance of using information and communication technologies in testing foreign language competence. For clarity the text includes schematic views of selected constructs.
Keywords: language testing, foreign language competence, communication.

Didactic Test Construction and Their ICT-Based Assessment
Mgr. Alena LUKÁČOVÁ, Ph.D.

In her contribution the author points out the necessity making the measurement of education results more effective thanks to ICT use. She also highlights the issue of didactic tests construction at the appropriate level according to the simplified Bloom’s taxonomy. This effort is demonstrated through a practical example of tests constructed for the purposes of testing foreign language competence of 1st grade combined studies students.
Keywords: didactic tests, measurement of education results, ICT, validity, reliability, relevance, objectivity, multiple-choice, revised Bloom’s taxonomy.